Construction Mirror Industry Features Details

Road construction peaks yet challenges ahead

July 15, 2019


Structural steel is employed under the projects of construction or building. On defining it in most basic terms, it can be said that structural steel is kind of steel designed to be applied under the segment of construction. Many of the structural shapes get converted into the form of an expanded beam having a profile of specific cross section. The shapes, sizes, chemical composition, mechanical properties of the structural steel such as strengths, storage practices, etc. are tuned by the pre standards in most of the industrialized nations.  The complete procedure pertaining to that of structural planning and design does not need only envisioning and conceptual thinking. But also requires the sound knowledge of practical aspects, such as the latest codes of designs and bye-laws, backed up by the ample experience, institution and judgment.

The projects of structural steel are comparatively the specific field of construction projects. The projects of steel structures vary with that of conventional structural engineering projects more specifically in the special issues that have to be considered during construction, transportation, installation and operation. The improvements with regard to productivity are allocated to the advances in equipment technology and the methods of construction for more than the previous twenty years. Steel structural projects are relatively special field of construction projects. The number of factors is considered accountable for that effect over productivity in this field. The industry of construction more specifically the fabrication of steel structure projects is measured as one of the key industries. It assists in the development and achievement of the society goals. Inspection and knowledge pertaining with the productivity of construction are of chief importance because they are responsible for impacting the economies of the construction industry; this is due to the pre-requisite information and knowledge of the crew productivity at the time of construction can result in saving of money and time. Investments made with respect to these projects are quite high and due to the complexity in construction of steel structure projects, various factors can highly affect overall productivity, thus the project can end up adding even more time and money in order to be completed. The model of Mat lab is employed for the purpose of regulating over the construction productivity of steel structure projects. Objective of this article is to provide the performance of construction for the construction of steel structure projects. The skill of the estimating team to determine with precision the amount of productions for various undertakings will have a powerful impact over the crew cost component, time schedule of the project and improvement in performance of projects. Making use of the model of Mat Lab is anticipated to give a consequence in savings of cost and the timing schedule of construction for the projects of steel structure in form of savings in the costing of an overall project.For each of the project, the factors such as productivity, cost, quality and time have been the major point of agitation. At this present time, no standards exist which is universally accepted for the factors which influences the productivity of crew under the construction industry.

Measures of performing construction: The performance of construction incorporates the entire aspects of the construction process. It is a broad inclusive term that suggests four major elements namely:

(a) Safety (b) Schedule time (c) Quality (d) Productivity

Guidelines for manpower, equipment and tools under the construction process

Improvement in production levels leads to securing a considerable amount of time and costs in the steel structure projects. No attention has been made with regard in improving the productivity of crew altogether. The influence of crew under such kind of projects is comparatively cheaper than that of the equipment and tools and these projects rely majorly over the equipment and tools. They identified and ranked the key factors affecting the level of productivity of the project. It is the basic needs of labors that must be compensated initially for the projection of satisfactory outcomes from them. According to studies there was a recommendation of adopting the critical issue of road construction for the generation of the remarkable figures in construction industry.

 Factors Influencing the Production Capacity of Steel Construction

Pre-construction procedure

Design: Design is the foremost step in either project, the combination between the design and phases of construction will result in higher production of crew as construction considerations are taken into account at the design stage. People associated with the designing of steel structures should possess complete information not only with the designing process requirements for the structures but also with methods and procedures of fabrication and erection in order to assure that the blueprint of a steel structure can be safely, economically and reliably executed (fabricated, assembled and erected), these can decide whether a design for construction is practical and cost efficient.

There are two distinct phases of design:

 • Structural Design

 • Design for Erection Fabrication

Fabrication is defined as the procedure employed for the manufacturing of the components of steel structures that on assembling and joining, takes up the form of entire frame. The frame in general make use of the readymade accessible standard sections that are purchased from the steelmaker or steel stockholder, together with such stuffs as protective coatings and bolts from other specialist suppliers. Fabrication includes the managing of stock members, cutting them in required size, punching and drilling for connections and preparing the connections, as well as shop painting or finishes when required.

 The principal exercises at the fabrication works: Pre-assembly butt welding Cutting and profiling Drilling and edge preparation Assembly Welding Fitting of stiffeners Shear connectors Trial erection (rarely carried out) Coating application.

 Fabrication contemplation: There are numerous components that must be observed at the time of fabrication and have a great influence over the improvement of the crew productivity for the construction of steel structure projects such as  accuracy , transporting and handling , stuffs shortage , damaged or defective material , priority of delivery, schedule time for fabrication.

Planning during the process of construction:

It is a truth that the well introduced factors is influencing crew in construction. A systematic planning of activities will aid in identification and quantify them in advance with the estimation and the work packages. On their identification at early stage, the ranges of estimation will be more certain and the managers of work can focus over the reduction and elimination of these crew factors. Some of the analytical segments to consider at the site layout are as follows:

 • Mobilization, Processing of project in terms of the tools and offices, stores and equipment enough to start project unless stoppage • OBS, Responsibilities and reporting • Site size and configuration • Location of adjacent roads, buildings and utilities, subject to damage • Location of roads available for transporting materials and equipment.

It is instructed and stressed that any structure which is to be constructed must fulfill the requirement of efficiency for which it is intended and meant and shall be durable for the life span which is desired. Thus, the sketch of either structure is classified into following two main types:

• Likely access points to site and buildings on the site and configuration of building such as location, height, size, which is being constructed.

• Relationship of building and its ingredients to the site and proposed construction procedure for the major systems of building.

 • Sequencing and scheduling of construction and requirements for the Erection and installation    equipment for the major building systems.

• Requirements for the material quantity, storage and delivery and entrance points for workers to site.

• Worker parking and Tool and equipment storage requirements.

• Construction operations facilities and trailers.

 • Safety and fire protection

• Efficiency of materials movement and management.

Technology and tools: The improvements over the productivity of crew are assigned for the technological advances in equipment and the construction procedure for more than the last twenty years, making use of technology may reveal inefficiencies, enable the visualization of areas with problems and helps in improving the accuracy levels of construction planning, and also provide documentation and visualization in order to support or defend the change order requests and construction claims. Technology can assist the planners of work in managing and controlling the impacts of crew by way of providing end users the ability to append and customize crew element for their projects. The erector may lease or own the lifting equipment for the project and will select equipment keeping in consideration the following factors:-

• Lifting loads   • Requirement of reach   • Lifting of heights   • Radius of crane   • Setup and availability of maneuvering space    • Requirements of mobility    • Strength of the ground base   • Construction sequence   • Sequence of Erection (i.e., horizontal or vertical sections)   • Number of cranes to be employed   • Fabrication of steel delivery points • No of times the crane will be used • Costs and Availability of equipment Method.

 The declaration for construction:-

The procedure of erection statement is a document of great significance as it assists the entire range of parties right from client to front end engineering and approval team to site execution team for the visualization of the actual construction previous to the starting of the project. The determination to certify the way of erecting a building vary on number of variables that must be analyzed by the erection engineer long before steel introduce to materialize at the site of construction. Contents of the methods of construction:-

 • Pre cambering of trusses and the procedure of De-propping

• Structural geometry of permanent structure and leveling and alignment as well

• Tolerances and plant and equipment

• Bolting and welding

• Principles of erection and the requirements of scaffolding

• Risk analysis and measures of safety

• Logistics and Erection sequences and Organization chart

Engineering drawings of temporary training:  

There exist several kinds of training that must be done for crews for the inside and outside operations of the site with regard to the safety measures of the crew and improving the projects of generation and particular construction of the projects of steel structure which need to be steady and accurate training such as: training of personnel, fall hazard training and specific training programs. Improvement over efficiencies by way of scheduling the sessions of training of crew, a significant component for the improvement in production is enhancing the levels of efficiency on the project by training crews. The corporations associated with construction should always be willing for providing the training to their crew so that they could convey the ace quality of work.

 • Competency and Training

• Construction induction training (such as a “construction induction card” or equivalent)

• Training in the use of plant that does not require a license for high risk work to operate  

 Induction dependable supervisor at specific site: For either project, it cannot just leave a construction crew to protect the proceedings of their own. Such as in case of any job, one is in need of a manager on site in order to ensure that work is advancing as per the schedule, jump in if there is a requirement of taking help, reporting to officials and carry out all the fundamental is which is necessary for promoting an efficient atmosphere of operation. One will be in need of someone acquired with the proficient skills (A background in skilled labor is just as useful as previous management) who can be relied and trusted. This is undoubtedly needed for the promotion of either construction project. Here is the list of some factors that must be pursued by the mangers at the site of operation in order to achieve higher yielding ranges.

 • The supervisor should provide the means for the assurance of that all labors are adequately instructed and trained, so ensuring the true fact that labors are executing risky work must have the adequate training, experience and other qualities for executing the work in a safe manner .

• They should differentiate between the Skilled Workers and Unskilled Workers and execute in accordance with it.

• For the projects pertaining to that of steel structures, the managers should be very well aware with common and frequent issues of steel erection and with their suggested solutions too.  

• Supervisor should have the efficiency in handling meetings and continuing the effective professional relationships with other personnel such as managers and instructors.

 • Avoid spending the time over the meetings and phone calls which are not required. This may result in maintaining one watch over the project and in avoiding problems due to the communication gaps or miscommunication between supervisors and crew.

Material handling:

The term is quite broad which involve procurements, inventory, shop fabrication and field servicing requires special. Structural steel shall be secured and managed in a way that minimum damage only occur. And do not secure the stuffs over the structure in a way that might cause damage or harm to those who are employed as the supporting members of the structure. Maintaining pace of members toward progression via blocking, cribbing, platforms or other support.

Delivery of materials: Fabricated structural steel shall be conveyed by following a sequence that will allow the efficient and economical fabrication and erection as well and do not impact negatively over the productivity, where the supply of stuffs on the dates prior to beginning the hours of erection which is considered as suitable time which assist in improving the yielding capacity of crew where they will be rechecked and conveyed to the construction at the most suited times. The conveying of the required stuffs at the site of construction prior beginning the procedure of construction is one of the most significant factors that impacts over the improvement in crew productivity. Components such as anchor rods, washers, nuts and other anchorage or grillage materials that are to be made under concrete or masonry shall be transported so that one can access them with ease whenever needed. The designated representative of owner for construction shall permit the manufacturer enough hours for manufacturing and shipping such stuffs before they are needed to be applied. In case of any shortage, it is retained relatively with the quantities of stuffs that are displayed in the shipping document, the designated representative of owner for construction or the erector shall promptly notify the fabricator so that the claim can be investigated. The aggregate of stuffs that are displayed over the statement of shipping are adopted customarily as verify by the designated representative of owner for construction, the fabricator and the erector as well. If the stuff reaches at the site of construction in damaged state, then the receiving entity shall notify early to the constructor and carrier prior to unloading the material, or promptly upon discovery prior to erection.

Construction health, safety, security and environmental: There is no doubt that the Construction Health, Safety, Security and Environmental performs a major role in determining the success of the projects and has the role over the production in either project, specifically in terms of Construction of steel structure projects, the implementation of such projects require any high interest over the Construction Health, Safety, Security and Environmental. With regard to construction safety is has been apparent that it is essential that corporation and leadership of project should be accomplished with elimination of accidents and miss happening and attaining an environment free from accident. Safety measure in construction is considered as the success of project; safety is one of the major elements of the satisfactory ranges of productivity which people seldom realize. Safety over the entire sites of construction is a major concern. Along with structural steel erection, the potential risks for the subjection of employees to equipment, falls, being struck or caught between material and equipment are ever present. As per the available records which can be relied, steel construction is found full of risks over safety and health criteria. Though much betterment over the safety measure of steel construction has been achieved, the erection steel structure still continues to lag behind most other activities with regard to safety. The principal objectives of safety at the time of erecting steelwork are as follows:

 • Safe access and working positions

• Safe lifting and placing of steel components;

 • Stability and adequate structure of the part-erected structure; Security, Accidents and injuries, theft on site and vandalism are the major elements of risks that were positioned under the composite risk factors of security. Theft at the site of construction is one of the peculiar things; the operators as well as outsiders attempt to steal stuffs, tools and equipment. The occurrence of such thing creates problems for the institution because they have to buy such products all over again, although vandalism is destructive enough.

Protection Occupational Safety and Health is divided into:

1. Personal protection like head protection, eye protection, hand and foot protection

2. Fail protection

 3. Hazards over the security of workplace  

Theft is fairly common at sites of construction, specifically when stuffs are left exposed and out in the open. Despite of setting up a fence that anyone with four limbs that can be reused bypass, hire a security firm for providing a night-guard so that expensive copper pipes and lumber don’t simply get up and walk off the site, costing you both materials and labor. The responsibilities of broad contractors and subcontractors safety involves:

 1. Development of the entire safety plans and documentation which are needed

2. Being directly liable for the safety of own employees.

 3. Maintenance of the proper supervision during the operation.   

4. Providing ideal personal protective equipment as necessary.

 5. Maintaining and operating equipment in a safe manner.

 Construction site services and Incentives: Incentive is counted as one of the significant element which influences the productivity of construction crew. It can be accomplished best when crews’ personal ambitions are identical with those of the corporation. Factors are, such as delays in making payments, a lack of a financial motivation system, non-provision of perfect transportation services and a lacking over training sessions. On-site services, are of great importance for either project as it is considered as the backbones for projects specifically pertaining to project of steel structure.

Quality: The definition of quality in previous times as “compliance to standards” is now considered to have incomplete meaning and replaced with the recent definition as “customer satisfaction”. Considerations of quality need special care, particularly when the production (construction/installation) is not at place, costing over remedial works may reach extremely high in case if attention is not paid to assurance of quality and grade. In the present market of construction, quality has to perform a major function in construction organization. Quality is rapidly emerging as crucial element as the prices has been traditionally. A quality system consists of the following factors:-

• The policy for quality   • Structure of Organization    • Procedures and processes    • Training and quality manual.

Negligence of extended overtime: There are many factors that can affect productivity, out of which some have nothing to do with the circumstance of overtime. While obvious, it is often neglected that manual power is not the sole resource or constituent that is consumed at an accelerated pace in a situation of overtime. If a project is not running as per the schedule or somewhere lagging, then working overtime may be able to exacerbate the problem. Since, whenever there is discussion of overtime, the neighboring circumstances must be understood clearly. Overtime for long duration may result in increased costs but decline over the productivity of crew. The influence of the continued overtime work on crew productivity is, perhaps, one of the most studied productivity loss factors in the construction industry and the impact of extended overtime on production of construction has been analyzed for more than 4 decades. The outcomes of many studies and surveys have been consistent; there is a negative straight influence of extended overtime (if exceeded for over 40 h for more than the duration of 14 days). There can and are arguments of both opposite sides over the concern of how much impact will be there, but there is not much disagreement that the extended overtime results in reduction over productivity.

Time and weather: As similar as the most civil engineering activities over the site steel erection is subject to the weather fluctuations. In developing, the procedure of erection for different aspects of weather conditions can influence the yielding capacity, detail planning and the behavior of the structure. And may be hazardous from the perspective of health & safety. The character of the weather at the particular site during the period of the year when erection is to take place has to be appreciated, as does its importance for each and every operation. It is the weather which everybody watches, talks about, but nobody can anything about it. But in association to construction industry, that’s not really the case as most of the contractors consider carefully the notice and forecasts of the local and regional patterns of weather, the rules and trends which assist in scheduling their construction projects appropriately. As the schedule of planned construction, formulated between the estimated duration and the startup of project, are almost generally prone to sensitivity of weather or say “weather sensitive” and make up their minds for taking the advantage of favorable seasonal, local, or regional weather patterns and avoid the unfavorable ones. Alterations in weather and seasons, executing operation whenever the season changes, the temperature zone, or the climatic changes resulting in execution of work under the circumstances of either very hot or very cold weather, rain or snow, or other variations in temperature or climate can impact over the workers beyond normal circumstances. When it rains, most of the crafts fail to run in the rains, on the other hand many do, those who reside in or near to wet and cold regions of the country specifically, must work or risk losing too much in wages. Work can be executed, and is possible to occur during the rains, but not in the absence of incompetent due to rain gear, visibility, safety, morale, discomfort, hazards, and other issues. With regard to steel structure projects, performing under rains is full of risk and which impacts quite negative over the ranges of productivity as the rate of production of crew will be low extremely. Safer work practices include avoiding too much taking of sodium salts which may result in higher body temperatures, increased need for quenches and nausea. Workers who are on the salt-restricted diets should talk over the need for supplementary salts with their doctors as an individual working under very hot environment tend to lose fluid and salt through perspiration.

Gathering Procedure

This procedure is considered as one of the fundamental processes in the construction of steel structures but vary from one site to another due to variation of nature at each site. This activity is considered important as it results in increased productivity of the crew, where there is a need to terminate the procedure of lifting within the shortest possible span of time. It is fair to say that there is a great interest in the assembling procedure under the steel structures. The requirement for the assembly work over the construction site includes several important factors such as:

• Equipment that is obligatory during the process of assembling (cranes).

 • Equipment that must be available during the lifting process whether cranes or Man-lift.

 • The proper tools that must be available during the assembly process and the lifting process.

• The availability of suitable labor to lifting process the assembly process.

• Time schedule for the assembling process and lifting process as per the availability of labor, equipment and tools as well.

The Crucial Safety factors

Under the elastic outline of steel structures, the safety element is applied over the range of productivity of the stuff with the purpose of obtaining the working stress or permissible stress in the material.

The value of the safety factor is decided considering the following:

  1. The average durability of stuffs is determined after the process of examining over various specimens. The strength and durability of distinct specimens of given structural stuffs are not similar.
  2. The figures of design loads remain undetermined, but values of dead loads can be confirmed with accuracy. But load which exists such as, impact load, wind load, snow load, etc is not practical to be determined along with precision since these depend upon statistics available. Only the estimated values of these loads are only determined.
  3. The values of internal forces in various structures rely over the adopted procedure of examining. The degree of precision of different procedures varies from one another. The methods including the descriptive analysis are comparatively precise. In case, analysis of the structure is done precisely, a little factor value of safety may be adopted.
  4. The variations in the temperatures ranges and settlement of supports are undetermined. Many of the times, a well crafted structure is damaged due to these upshots. Corrosion is considered responsible for the declination of material strength. The chances of corrosion are more probable when a structure is located in industrial areas and exposed to chemical wastes.
  5. The failure of some structures or some elements of a structure is less severe and less disastrous then that the failure of huge structures or a major component of a structure on comparing.

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